This cochrane review from 2012 is an updated review of effective interventions for reducing the incidence falls in older people living in the community, first published in 2009. The review included 159 randomised trials (79,193 participants), where most of them compared a fall prevention intervention with no intervention or an intervention not expected to reduce falls. Exercise as a single intervention was tested in 59 trials and multifactorial programmes in 40 trials.
- Cochrane Bone
- Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (February 2012)
- CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 3)
- MEDLINE (1946 to March 2012)
- EMBASE (1947 to March 2012)
- CINAHL (1982 to February 2012)
- and online trial registers
Authors conclude that group and home-based exercise programmes, and home safety interventions reduce rate of falls and risk of falling. Multifactorial assessment and intervention programmes reduce rate of falls but not risk of falling; Tai Chi reduces risk of falling. Overall, vitamin D supplementation does not appear to reduce falls but may be effective in people who have lower vitamin D levels before treatment. You can read the abstract and full text paper on the pubmed website.